If you are a beginner in the world of programming and
remember some basic mathematical concepts, you might think; I roughly know what
operators are in mathematics, but what are operators in programming? Operators
are key elements in programming because they enable the execution of various
operations on data, allowing programmers to build complex logical structures
and perform a variety of tasks. Operators in the ** Python** programming language
are symbols or special functions used to perform operations on values or
variables. They allow data manipulation in different ways, such as mathematical
operations, comparisons, logical operations, and so on.

**A Girl Learns Operators in Python Programming Language**

Essentially, it is the same thing as in mathematics,
except that in computer science it is somewhat expanded for the needs of
programming languages and better computer functionality. Likewise, if you
compare operators in the **Python** programming language with those in other
programming languages, you will see that operators have a similar purpose in
most programming languages, but their exact implementation and syntax may vary
between programming languages. For example, in the **Python** programming language,
the identity operator **is **is not the same as** is** in the ** C# **programming
language. In the

**Python**programming language, the

**is**operator is used to check if two variables refer to the same object, while in the

**C#**programming language, the is operator is used to check a variable's type.

**Understanding Operators: An overview of the most
important operators in Python**

The **Python** programming language defines the division of
types of operators into the following seven groups:

1. Arithmetic operators

2. Assignment operators

3. Comparison operators

4. Logical operators

5. Identity operators

6. Membership operators

7. Bitwise operators

In addition to the mentioned division of types of
operators, it is essential to pay attention to operator precedence. As in any
other programming language, operators in the **Python** programming language have
precedence that determines the order of operations. They are mostly the same as
in mathematics. However, when it comes to the **Python** programming language,
there are additional operators. See the following picture of the operator
precedence table.

**Table of Operator Precedence in the Python Programming Language**

**arithmetic operators**

**Arithmetic operators** are operators used to perform
mathematical operations on numbers. They allow the execution of basic
arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division,
and modulus. When it comes to the **Python** programming language, this group also
includes exponentiation and floor division. To demonstrate this, launch your
**IDE - Integrated Development Environment**, find the project **python_tutorial**, and
add a new file to the project named **arithmetic_operators.py**. Then, type the
following code.

*"""
ARITHMETIC OPERATORS
MANUEL RADOVANOVIC - 2024-06-25
"""
*number1 = int(input("Enter the first number: "))

number2 = int(input("Enter the second number: "))

print()

print(f"Addition: {number1} + {number2} = {number1 + number2}")

print(f"Subtraction: {number1} - {number2} = {number1 - number2}")

print(f"Multiplication: {number1} * {number2} = {number1 * number2}")

print(f"Division: {number1} / {number2} = {number1 / number2}")

print(f"Modulus: {number1} % {number2} = {number1 % number2}")

print(f"Exponentiation: {number1} ** {number2} = {number1 ** number2}")

print(f"Floor division: {number1} // {number2} = {number1 // number2}")

Run the program and if you enter the input parameters **25**
and **5**, you will get the following result:

**Enter the first number: 25**

**Enter the second number: 5**

** **

**Addition: 25 + 5 = 30**

**Subtraction: 25 - 5 = 20**

**Multiplication: 25 * 5 = 125**

**Division: 25 / 5 = 5.0**

**Modulus: 25 % 5 = 0**

**Exponentiation: 25 ** 5 = 9765625**

**Floor division: 25 // 5 = 5**

What this coding looks like; you can watch it in the following video:

**Python - 3. Arithmetic Operators**

**assignment operators**

**Assignment operators** in the **Python** programming language
are specific operators used to assign values to variables. The basic assignment
operator is the equals sign **=**. It is used to assign the value on the** right-hand
**side to the variable on the **left-hand** side. For example, with assignment
operators, you can shorten the writing of arithmetic operations. It is best to
create a small program that demonstrates assignment operators and their usage.
Therefore, in our already existing project **python_tutorial**, create a new file
and name it **assignment_operators.py**. Then, type the following code.

*"""*

*ASSIGNMENT OPERATORS
MANUEL RADOVANOVIC - 2024-06-25
"""
*number = int(input("Enter a number:
"))

print()

x = number

print(f"Simple assignment operator: X = {number}")

number += 5

print(f"Add and equal operator: X += 5 ... {number}")

number = x

number -= 5

print(f"Subtract and equal operator: X -= 5 ... {number}")

number = x

number *= 5

print(f"Asterisk and equal operator: X *= 5 ... {number}")

number = x

number /= 5

print(f"Divide and equal operator: X /= 5 ... {number}")

print()

number = x

number %= 5

print(f"Modulus and equal operator: X %= 5 ... {number}")

number = x

number //= 5

print(f"Double divide and equal operator: X //= 5 ... {number}")

number = x

number **= 5

print(f"Exponent assign operator: X **= 5 ... {number}")

print()

number = x

number &= 5

print(f"Bitwise And Operator: &= 5 ... {number}")

number = x

number |= 5

print(f"Bitwise OR Operator: X |= 5 ... {number}")

number = x

number ^= 5

print(f"Bitwise XOR Operator: X ^= 5 ... {number}")

print()

number = x

number >>= 5

print(f"Bitwise right shift assignment operator: X >>= 5 ... {number}")

number = x

number <<= 5

print(f"Bitwise left shift assignment operator: X <<= 5 ... {number}")

Run the program and if you enter the input parameter **24**;
you will get the following result:

**Enter a number: 24**

**Simple assignment operator: X = 24**

**Add and equal operator: X += 5 ... 29**

**Subtract and equal operator: X -= 5
... 19**

**Asterisk and equal operator: X *= 5
... 120**

**Divide and equal operator: X /= 5 ...
4.8**

** **

**Modulus and equal operator: X %= 5
... 4**

**Double divide and equal operator: X
//= 5 ... 4**

**Exponent assign operator: X **= 5 ...
7962624**

** **

**Bitwise And Operator: &= 5 ... 0**

**Bitwise OR Operator: X |= 5 ... 29**

**Bitwise XOR Operator: X ^= 5 ... 29**

** **

**Bitwise right shift assignment
operator: X >>= 5 ... 0**

**Bitwise left shift assignment
operator: X <<= 5 ... 768**

What this coding looks like; you can watch it in the following video:

**Python - 4. Assignment Operators**

**comparison operators**

**Comparison operators** in the **Python** programming language
are operators used to compare values and return a result in the form of a
boolean value: **True** or **False**. These operators simply allow the comparison of
different variables and values. They are extremely useful and you will often
use them for conditional code execution, as well as for comparing values in
control structures like if-else statements and all types of loops. Add a new
file to our project **python_tutorial** and name it **comparison_operators.py**. Then,
type the following code.

*"""*

*COMPARISON OPERATORS
MANUEL RADOVANOVIC - 2024-06-25
"""
*number1 = int(input("Enter the first
number: "))

number2 = int(input("Enter the second number: "))

print()

print(f"Equal: {number1} == {number2} ... {number1 == number2}")

print(f"Not equal: {number1} != {number2} ... {number1 != number2}")

print(f"Greater than: {number1} > {number2} ... {number1 > number2}")

print(f"Less than: {number1} < {number2} ... {number1 < number2}")

print(f"Greater than or equal to: {number1} >= {number2} ... {number1 >= number2}")

print(f"Less than or equal to: {number1} <= {number2} ... {number1 <= number2}")

Run the program and if you enter the input parameters** 25**
and **5**, you will get the following result:

**Enter the first number: 25**

**Enter the second number: 5**

**Equal: 25 == 5 ... False**

**Not equal: 25 != 5 ... True**

**Greater than: 25 > 5 ... True**

**Less than: 25 < 5 ... False**

**Greater than or equal to: 25 >= 5
... True**

**Less than or equal to: 25 <= 5 ...
False**

What this coding looks like; you can watch it in the
following video:

**Python - 5. Comparison Operators**

**other operators**

**Logical operators** – Logical operators in the Python
programming language are used to perform logical operations on boolean values **True**
and **False**. Logical operators simply combine and manipulate boolean values using
the operators and, or, or not.

**Identity operators** – Identity operators in the** Python**
programming language are used to compare two identities, i.e., whether two
variables or objects have reference to the same object. This is done using the
operators is and is not. It's important to note that these operators are
different from the equality operator **==**, so be mindful not to confuse them in
your coding. Identity operators are commonly used when comparing variables that
reference instances of classes or complex objects.

**Membership operators** – Membership operators in the **Python**
programming language are operators used to check if an element belongs to a
collection such as lists, arrays, sets, etc. There are only two operators for
this purpose: **in** and not **in**. They are often used when coding searches or
filtering.

Add a new file to our project **python_tutorial **and name it
**logical_identity_membership_operators.py**. Then, type the following code.

*""*

*LOGICAL,
IDENTITY AND MEMBERSHIP OPERATORS
*

*MANUEL
RADOVANOVIC - 2023-07-07
*

*"""
*

number1 = int(input("Enter the first number: "))

number2 = int(input("Enter the second
number: "))

print()

*# Logical
operators*

*
*

print(f"and: X < 10 and Y
< 100 ... {(number1 < 10) and (number2 < 100)}")

print(f"or: X < 10 or Y
< 8 ... {(number1 < 10) or (number2 < 8)}")

print(f"not: not(X < 10 and
Y < 100) ... {not(number1 < 10) and (number2 < 100)}")

print()

*# Identity
operators*

*
*

print(f"is: X = Y ... {number1 is number2}")

print(f"is not: X = Y ... {number1 is not number2}")

print()

*#
Membership operators*

Y = [1, 3, 5, 8]

print(f"in: X in Y ... Y = [1,
3, 5, 8] {number1 in Y}")

print(f"not in: X not in Y ...
Y = [1, 3, 5, 8] {number1 not in Y}")

Run the program and if you enter the input parameters 25 and 4 you will get the following result:

**Enter the first number: 25**

**Enter the second number: 4**

** **

**and: X < 10 and Y < 100 ...
False**

**or: X < 10 or Y < 8 ... True**

**not: not(X < 10 and Y < 100)
... True**

** **

**is: X = Y ... False**

**is not: X = Y ... True**

** **

**in: X in Y ... Y = [1, 3, 5, 8] False**

**not in: X not in Y ... Y = [1, 3, 5,
8] True**

What this coding looks like; you can watch it in the following video:

**Python - 6. Logical, Identity and Membership Operators**

**Bitwise operators – shift operators**, we will cover them in an advanced tutorial when we learn about bit shifting. For now, it will be great once you fully understand the text and examples provided.

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